Religion

Michael Penn, Chair (Fall 2016)

Natalina Tulik, Academic Department Coordinator


205 Skinner Hall
413-538-2233
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/religion

Overview and Contact Information

To major in religion is to ask questions about the many ways women and men have sought to make sense of their lives. Examining religious traditions—their notable leaders, their valued texts, and the social behaviors designed to embody their visions—is a central way to study the profound questions that direct so many areas of human endeavor. The study of religion is an excellent way of organizing a liberal arts education so that diverse cultures, artistic expressions, political forces, and gender assignments can be questioned and set in historical and changing contexts.

Our courses focus on sacred texts and interpretive traditions; religious thought; and religion in history and society. The study of religion is inherently comparative, international, and interdisciplinary in approach, embracing a range of methodologies from the humanities and social sciences.

See Also

Faculty

This area of study is administered by the Department of Religion:

Michael Penn, William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Religion

Susanne Mrozik, Associate Professor of Religion

Amina Steinfels, Associate Professor of Religion

Requirements for the Major

A minimum of 32 credits:

20 credits in religion at any level20
12 additional credits in religion at the 300 level 112
Majors must ensure their course selections include at least three different religious traditions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Judaism. This requirement may be fulfilled by courses at any level and by courses that take a comparative approach.
Total Credits32
1

Only one 395 course will count toward the 300-level requirement

Additional Specifications

  • The Religion Major does not have a prescribed sequence of required courses. Students choose their course of study in close consultation with their advisors.
  • Independent work is encouraged and, if approved by the advisor, such work may constitute partial fulfillment of the above requirements.
  • Courses with a substantial focus on a religious tradition or a religious theme offered by other departments may be counted towards the Religion major with approval of the advisor and department chair. Examples include:
CLASS-211Gods and Mortals: Myth in Ancient Art and Literature 4
CLASS-260Knowing God 4
HIST-222Muslim Politics in Modern South Asia 4
HIST-223Religion and Politics in Modern India 4
HIST-235Native American History through 1865 4
IR-324Islamic Political Thought 4
  • Please note this list is not comprehensive. Additional courses should be identified in consultation with the advisor or department chair.
  • One extra-departmental course on relevant methodological or theoretical approaches may be counted towards the major with permission of the advisor. Such a course may be of particular value for students planning to do independent research. Examples include:
ANTHR-275Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology 4
SOCI-225Survey Research and Data Analysis 4
GNDST-201Methods and Practices in Feminist Scholarship 4
  • Please note that such courses may have prerequisites set by their department or require the permission of the instructor.

Requirements for the Minor

A minimum of 20 credits:

Four courses in religion at any level16
At least one additional course in religion at the 300 level4
Total Credits20

Additional Specifications

  •  At least three of the courses should be taken in the Mount Holyoke Department of Religion.

Course Offerings

RELIG-100 Introduction to Religion

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course is an introduction to the study of religion, assessing the nature of religion and methodological approaches through an examination of subject matter drawn from numerous traditions.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
S. Mrozik
Restrictions: This course is limited to first years, sophomores and juniors

RELIG-102 Introduction to Islam

Fall. Credits: 4

This course examines Islamic religious beliefs and practices from the origins of Islam to the present, focusing on such central issues as scripture and tradition, law and theology, sectarianism and mysticism. Attention will be given to the variety of Islamic understandings of monotheism, prophethood, dogma, ritual, and society.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
A. Steinfels

RELIG-103 Introduction to the Hebrew Bible

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course provides a critical introduction to the writings contained in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Old Testament). It investigates the social and historical context of the ancient Israelites, examines a range of ancient Near Eastern literature, and introduces the principal methods of biblical studies. Participants will read much of the Hebrew Bible as well as select non-Israelite sources. Examples of recent biblical scholarship will provide additional information for better understanding these writings and will present different methods for approaching and interpreting ancient texts.

Crosslisted as: JWST-103
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn

RELIG-104 Introduction to the New Testament

Spring. Credits: 4

Introduction to the New Testament investigates the social and historical context of first- and early second-century Christianity, examines New Testament and select non-canonical documents, and introduces you to the principal methods of New Testament studies. In the course of the semester you will read the works that make up most modern collections of the New Testament, a number of early Christian documents that did not make the final cut, and several ancient non-Christian sources.

Crosslisted as: JWST-104
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-112 Introduction to Judaism

Spring. Credits: 4

Judaism is a 3,500-year-old tradition that has developed over time as Jewish communities all over the world creatively interacted with the different cultural and historical milieus in which they lived. This course explores the ways in which Judaism has sought to transform ordinary life into sacred life. What are the ways in which Judaism conceives of God, and what is the meaning of life? What roles do study, prayer, ethics, sex, marriage, family, rituals of the life cycle, and community play in Judaism? These and other questions will be taken up through study of diverse types of religious literature and historical evidence.

Crosslisted as: JWST-112
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-114 The Genesis of Four World Religions

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

How can stories of the world's origins illuminate the origins of four world religions? We will examine how the transmission, interpretation, and rewritings of Genesis affected the birth and subsequent history of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Mormonism. We will go to the MHC art museum to examine 4,000 year old cuneiform tablets and handle ancient Islamic coins. We will discuss the formation of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, the Qur'an, and the Book of Mormon. We will read an ancient Harlequin romance, tour heaven and hell, hear the garden of Eden story from the perspective of the snake, learn how the world was supposedly formed, and discover how the universe is supposed to end.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn

RELIG-163 Introduction to Buddhism

Spring. Credits: 4

Some scholars have argued that there is no such thing as 'Buddhism' in the singular, but only 'Buddhisms' in the plural. This course introduces students to select historically and culturally diverse forms of Buddhism, including Sri Lankan Theravada Buddhism, Japanese Zen Buddhism, and Tibetan Buddhism. The course pays particular attention to modern (and modernist) reinterpretations of Buddhism, including contested views of gender.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
S. Mrozik

RELIG-167 Hinduism: An Introduction

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

A major religious tradition of India, Hinduism is in practice a multiplicity of expressions. This course explores Hinduism's diverse traditions through its history, unifying themes, texts, and popular observances. We will read from the great texts (Ramayana, Mahabharata), learn about gods and goddesses (Krishna, the Great Goddess), and discuss art and ritual. Topics include: body techniques and the material universe (yoga, Tantra); philosophical traditions, concepts (karma, dharma); religious figures (Mirabai); movements (Bhakti). Hinduism's contemporary expressions in India and the West will be considered in social and historical context. Frequent illustration is provided through videos.

Crosslisted as: ASIAN-167
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
I. Peterson

RELIG-201 Reading the Qur'an

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course examines the history, structure, and themes of the Qur'an and analyzes the place of the Qur'an in Islamic religious thought. Students will read the entire text of the Qur'an in translation, as well as selections from medieval and modern commentaries.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
A. Steinfels
Notes: This course counts toward the Asian Studies and Middle Eastern Studies majors and minors.

RELIG-205 Issues in Islamic History

This course explores Islamic religious history and issues that have been of religious and cultural significance to Muslims in various eras.

RELIG-207 Women and Gender in Islam

Spring. Credits: 4

This course will examine a range of ways in which Islam has constructed women--and women have constructed Islam. We will study concepts of gender as they are reflected in classical Islamic texts, as well as different aspects of the social, economic, political, and ritual lives of women in various Islamic societies.

Crosslisted as: GNDST-210SL
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
A. Steinfels
Notes: This course counts toward the Asian Studies and Middle Eastern Studies majors and minors.

RELIG-208 Religion and Science Fiction

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course examines popular understandings of religion through an exploration of its representation in science fiction. We will examine works that speculate on the nature, origin, and function of religious beliefs and practices, and on the place of religion in imagined futures and universes. We will also explore science fiction-based religious movements and the use of science fiction to communicate religious ideas. Materials discussed will include novels, short stories, films, and television episodes. The course will focus largely on science fiction produced in the US over the past 100 years.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
A. Steinfels

RELIG-210 Religious Ethics

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course explores the ethical implications of religious convictions, particularly implications relevant to personal decisions. It introduces ethical principles through an examination of scriptural sources, a selection of major moral thinkers, and illustrative moral dilemmas. Among the concerns of the course are the components and motives of personal decision, the values and liabilities of fixed norms and principles, and the nature of personal responsibility.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
J. Crosthwaite
Restrictions: Course limited to sophomores, juniors and seniors

RELIG-216 Whose Social Justice is it Anyway? Spirituality, Religion, and Civic Engagement

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This theoretical and experiential course will examine the concept of social justice dating back to Roman Catholic teachings by St. Thomas Aquinas regarding poverty, and leading up to modern-day umbrella movements that include race, class, gender, sexual orientation, ability, national origin, and first language. It also examines the ways in which ideas about social justice have shifted. This will include intersections with global human rights movements, evangelicalism and intersectionality regarding identity politics. Students will participate in ethnographic community-based projects learning about how religion and/or spirituality are utilized for civic engagement.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
Other Attribute(s): Community-Based Learning, Speaking-Intensive, Writing-Intensive
M. Runell Hall

RELIG-218 Women in American Religious History

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course is a critical study of significant women (Anne Hutchinson, Mother Ann Lee, Mary Baker Eddy, Ellen Gould White, Aimee Semple McPherson, Dorothy Day, and others) and their roles in the pluralistic character of American religion. It raises central questions concerning leadership, marginality, deviant behavior, and criticism of women. Students are expected to contribute to the course by their participation and individual research.

Crosslisted as: GNDST- 210RH
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
J. Crosthwaite

RELIG-221 Religious Movements in America

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

What is American religion? Is America a 'Christian' nation? How has immigration affected the American religious landscape? How have struggles for freedom, civil rights, racial, economic, gender, and LGBTQ equality affected what people believe and how they act out these beliefs? To begin to answer these questions, we survey the main historical narratives of religion in the U.S. from the colonial period to the present. We also zero in at various moments in this history to appreciate the variety of religion and religious experience in American life. This combination enables us to engage the tension between the two main ways of considering religion in America: the quest for religious consensus and the recognition of a thoroughly pluralistic American religious culture.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-223 Religion and Politics in Modern India

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

The history of India has been singled out for its complex intermingling of religion and politics. This course will explore the constitution of religious identities in two of India's largest religious communities: Hindu and Muslim. Focusing primarily on the colonial period, we will discuss religious reform movements, communal violence, mass politics, and the partition of the subcontinent into the independent states of India and Pakistan. Throughout we will be interested in the ways that the colonial experience affected the religious thought and practice of Indians. Finally, we will explore the meanings of this history for the postcolonial workings of democracy and secularism in modern India.

Crosslisted as: HIST-223
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
Other Attribute(s): Speaking-Intensive, Writing-Intensive
K. S. Datla

RELIG-225 Topics in Religion

RELIG-225HM Topics in Religion: 'Heretics, Martyrs, and Saints'

Spring. Credits: 4

Heretics, Martyrs, and Saints investigates how early Christians described holy people as well as their nemeses. It explores how descriptions of martyrs, saints, heretics, demons, and even Satan himself were used to shore up the ever-contested boundaries of Christian orthodoxy and how the depiction of such figures forever changed the trajectory of Christian beliefs and practices. In the course of the semester we will read sources such as a letter from a Christian bishop wanting to be thrown to the lions, the dream journal of a female martyr, Gnostic gospels, wisdom from desert monks, and an ancient exorcism manual.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-225LF Topics in Religion: 'Love, Friendship, and Interpersonal Relations in Judaism'

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course explores teachings and practices having to do with interpersonal relations in Jewish religious tradition, including notions of 'spiritual friendship,' relations between parents and children, teachers and disciples, and loving partners. Drawing broadly on the many varieties of Jewish religious literature, with a special interest in the mystical traditions of Judaism, the course also addresses diverse ethical questions such as the nature of forgiveness, responsibility towards the needs of others, and sexual ethics.

Crosslisted as: JWST-225LF
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-226 Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course surveys the classical responses major Western thinkers have had to great religious questions. Ancient Greece, the Enlightenment, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries serve as the primary periods of focus. Works by Plato, Anselm, Aquinas, Hume, Kant, Dostoevsky, Marx, Kierkegaard, and Tillich are just a few of the materials we will read. The classical arguments for G-D's existence, as well as the nature of human freedom, and the place of reason and faith in social life will be addressed.

Crosslisted as: PHIL-226, CST-250
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
Other Attribute(s): Speaking-Intensive, Writing-Intensive
The department

RELIG-230 Spirituals and the Blues

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course examines and analyzes African American music as a primary textual source for understanding philosophical and religious language within that community. It addresses various questions: What are the central philosophical and religious themes expressed within the text? How are these themes reflected in the music? What is the intrinsic character of the spirituals and the blues? Is there such a thing as a 'music of oppression'? In what way(s) does the black experience contribute to philosophical and religious understanding, as well as the use of language? What does this material suggest about the connections among art, literature, and experience?

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
The department

RELIG-232 Contemporary Jewish Ethics

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course will explore issues of contemporary ethics from the point of view of Jewish religious thought and tradition. Topics will include medical and genetic ethics, death and dying, family and sexual ethics, ethics of war, poverty, and the environment. The course will explore these issues in the context of theoretical approaches to questions of religion and ethics.

Crosslisted as: JWST-232
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department
Prereq: 8 credits in religion or Jewish studies.

RELIG-233 Contemplative Practice and Religious Traditions

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

Contemplative practices and meditative techniques are central to many religious traditions. This course explores such practices, in part, through the study of religious texts that serve as guides to contemplation and 'mindfulness.' We also consider ways in which classical contemplative traditions are being adapted by contemporary spiritual seekers. Students will also have opportunities to engage in various forms of practice from Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist traditions, in order to exemplify the traditions being studied.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
The department

RELIG-235 Introduction to Jewish Mysticism

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

Mysticism refers to a type of religious life in which individuals seek intimate and personal, direct and intense experience of the Divine. There exists a rich and fascinating Jewish mystical tradition with hundreds of books of diverse kinds. This course examines the Kabbalah of thirteenth-century Spain, focusing upon the seminal work of this period, the Sohar; the synthesis of mysticism and messianism that occurred in the city of Safed (in the Land of Israel) in the sixteenth century; and the popular pietistic movement of eastern Europe from the eighteenth century forward, Hasidism; and various expressions of mystical spirituality in our own time.

Crosslisted as: JWST-235
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-241 Women and Buddhism

Spring. Credits: 4

This course examines the contested roles and representations of Buddhist women in different historical and cultural contexts. Using a variety of ethnographic, historical, and textual sources, the course investigates both the challenges and opportunities Buddhist women have found in their religious texts, institutions, and communities.

Crosslisted as: GNDST-210BD
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
S. Mrozik

RELIG-247 What Didn't Make It Into the New Testament

Fall. Credits: 4

Hundreds of ancient Christian texts did not make it into the New Testament. 'What Didn't Make It in the New Testament' examines some of these excluded writings. We will explore Gnostic gospels, hear of a five-year-old Jesus killing (and later resurrecting) his classmates, peruse ancient Christian romance novels, tour heaven and hell, read the garden of Eden story told from the perspective of the snake, and learn how the world will end. In critically examining these ancient narratives, we will better appreciate the diversity of formative Christianity, better understand the historical context of the early church, and explore the politics behind what did and did not make it into the bible.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn

RELIG-252 Magic, Prayer, and Sacrifice: Rituals and Why We Do Them

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

From live sacrifice to sacred dances, from pilgrimage to bodily purification, rituals have long been considered a hallmark of religion. Yet, ritual activities are also important to apparently non-religious spheres of life, such as sporting events and political mobilization. This course will examine examples of ritual activity from a range of cultural contexts through the lens of anthropological, sociological, psychological, and religious studies theories of ritual. We will explore the structure of ritual activities, the question of whether rituals have meaning and function for individuals and for societies, and, if so, what those meanings and functions might be.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
A. Steinfels

RELIG-256 What Didn't Make It in the Bible

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

Hundreds of ancient religious texts did not make it into the Hebrew Scripture (aka the Old Testament). This course examines some of these excluded writings. In particular, we will focus on works found among the Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, and the Dead Sea Scrolls, We will read an ancient Harlequin romance, tour heaven and hell, hear of the adventures of fallen angels who sired giants (and taught humans about cosmetics), and learn how the world will end. In critically examining such texts, we will better appreciate the diversity of Judaism, better understand the historical context of early Christianity, and explore the politics behind what did and did not make it into the bible.

Crosslisted as: JWST-256
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn

RELIG-265 Holy Feast, Holy Fast: Sacred Food and Eating in Judaism

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course explores the role of food and eating in Jewish religious culture, but will also include a significant comparative religious dimension. Topics will include the ritual, religious, and social significance of the dietary laws in Judaism, the symbolic foods of Passover and other festivals, fasting and ascetic attitudes toward food, as well as food culture as a marker of Jewish identity.

Crosslisted as: JWST-265
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
The department

RELIG-267 Buddhist Ethics

Fall. Credits: 4

This is an introduction to contemporary and classical Buddhist ethical ideals. Working with primary and secondary sources, we will ask the following questions: Is the universe moral? What are Buddhist ethical ideals and who embodies these? How do contemporary Buddhists interpret classical ethical ideals? What moral dilemmas do Buddhists face today? How do Buddhists grapple with moral ambiguity? We will consider the perspectives of Buddhists from different cultures including India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and the United States.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
S. Mrozik

RELIG-270 Jewish Religious Art and Material Culture: From Ancient Israel to Contemporary Judaism

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

Despite the biblical prohibition against 'graven images,' there exists a rich history of Jewish religious art and aesthetics. This course will study ancient Israelite art and archeology, including the Second Temple in Jerusalem, the extraordinary mosaic floors and frescoes of early synagogues throughout the Mediterranean world, medieval illuminated Hebrew manuscripts and printed book culture, synagogues of later periods, including the wooden synagogues of Eastern Europe, and Judaic ritual objects of many types. Jewish art, architecture, and visual representation will be explored in the context of the ancient Near Eastern, Greco-Roman, Christian, and Islamic settings in which they evolved.

Crosslisted as: JWST-270, ARTH-290JR
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
The department

RELIG-295 Independent Study

Fall and Spring. Credits: 1 - 4

The department
Instructor permission required.

RELIG-306 Sex and the Early Church

Fall. Credits: 4

This course examines the various ways first- through fifth-century Christians addressed questions regarding human sexuality. We will concentrate on the rise of sexual asceticism and pay particular attention to the relationship between sexuality and issues of gender, culture, power, and resistance. Primary readings will include letters, narrative accounts of female and male ascetics, monastic rules, and 'heretical' scriptures. These will be supplemented by modern scholarship in early Christian studies and the history of sexuality.

Crosslisted as: GNDST-333TT
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn
Prereq: 4 credits from religion or gender studies.

RELIG-311 Sufism: The Mystic Path in Islam

Spring. Credits: 4

Exploration of the mystical tradition in Islam known as Sufism, from its origins in medieval Iraq to its role in contemporary Islamic societies. This course focuses on how the Sufi pursuit of unity with, or annihilation in, God relates to the core monotheistic beliefs of Islam. Sufi theories and practices are studied through primary source materials. Special attention will be paid to the themes of love, desire, and beauty in the literature of Sufism.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
A. Steinfels
Notes: This course counts towards the Asian Studies, Middle Eastern Studies, and South Asian Studies majors and minors.

RELIG-323 Topics in Contemporary Theology

RELIG-323FT Topics in Contemporary Theology: 'Feminist Theologies'

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

Mary Daly, Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza, Phyllis Trible, and Judith Plaskow, among others, have argued that traditional Jewish and Christian theological systems have overlooked the needs, concerns, histories, and contributions of women. Their challenges range from the historical modification of a presumably unbiased religious system to the outright rejection of a so-called patriarchal establishment. Whatever their approach, feminist theologies offer diverse and incisive tools for understanding how a theological system operates, how transitory cultural assumptions become embedded in ongoing doctrines, and how apparently minor adjustments can have significant ripple effects.

Crosslisted as: GNDST-333FF
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
J. Crosthwaite
Prereq: 8 credits from Religion department or permission.

RELIG-329 Buddhism in North America

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

In this course we will explore the diverse nature of Buddhist identity and practice in contemporary North America. After an overview of the major Buddhist traditions in North America, we will explore key factors in the shaping of North American Buddhist identities and practices, such as race, ethnicity and gender; immigration and conversion; meditation movements (including in prisons); social activism; North American forms of monasticism; and Buddhism in the popular media. No prior background required to take this course.

Applies to requirement(s): Humanities; Multicultural Perspectives
S. Mrozik
Restrictions: Course limited to sophomores, juniors and seniors

RELIG-331 Advanced Topics in Religion

RELIG-332 Seminar in American Religious History

This course offers advanced students an opportunity to investigate with some sophistication a problem that requires careful attention to research methods, to critical literature, and to writing. Seminar topics include people, periods, or problems that have a particular bearing on religion in America.

RELIG-332SH Seminar in American Religious History: 'The Shakers'

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course will examine the historical and cultural creation of the Shaker society. The religious vision of an alternative society whose birth and development paralleled that of the new American nation; by contrast and by imitation, the separate Shaker route thus offers an intriguing critique of American society and its values, and an unusual laboratory for examining a religious community based on a dual godhead.

Crosslisted as: GNDST-333PP
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
J. Crosthwaite
Prereq: 8 credits in Religion, or 8 credits in Gender Studies.

RELIG-337 Topics in the Study of Christianity

RELIG-337MC Topics in the Study of Christianity: 'Early Muslim/Christian Encounters'

Not Scheduled for This Year. Credits: 4

This course explores a set of recently discovered documents that substantially changes our understanding of Christian/Muslim relations. We will read texts such as a Christian/Muslim debate, a bishop's letter on how to bribe Muslim rulers, and an exorcism account concerning demon-possessed monks. Students will be among the first in a thousand years to read these works providing them with a strong knowledge of the history of Christianity, of Islam, and of their first interactions with each other.

Crosslisted as: MEDST-300MC
Applies to requirement(s): Humanities
M. Penn
Prereq: 4 credits in Religion.

RELIG-395 Independent Study

Fall and Spring. Credits: 1 - 8

The department
Instructor permission required.